A comprehensive course teaching both the operational principle of Global Navigation Satellite Systems as well as the electronic basis on which they operate. All four major GNSS are described (GPS, Glonass, Beidou and Galileo) as well as their application to (hydrographic) surveying. A short introduction to relevant geodetic and statistic concepts are given.

More advanced topics such as the Least Squares Adjustment computations and satellite position computations are found in the module 'Positioning' and 'Geodetic Coordinate Reference Systems'.

This is an extract from the Handbook of Offshore surveying for this e-learning course. 

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